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NFPA 80 stands for the National Fire Protection Association standard for fire doors and other openings that must be fire resistant.
All openings in walls, floors or ceilings, for any intended purpose, provide passageways for smoke and fire. Proper construction, installation and maintenance of doors and windows impede the spread of fire and save lives. The NFPA 80 sets standards for most opening barriers.
Such barriers are part of what is known as passive fire protection, and can aid in giving people the time needed to safely escape from a burning building. In doors, this includes all components and hardware including latches, hinges, automatic closures, seals, gaskets and windows. Seals must expand when heated to prevent the passage of smoke. Glass must be wired (shown to reduce breakage from heat) or made from materials that can withstand not only heat, but also the pressure of fire hose streams.
The doors themselves must be made of materials that restrict the rise of temperature on the side opposite any fire. Fire doors are not necessarily fire proof, but are rated from 20 to 90 minutes of fire resistance. These doors are designed to remain closed or to be automatically closed in the case of fire.
NFPA 80 does not cover certain types of typical doors. These include fire safety curtains, and accordion-folding walls. At the other extreme of expected protection, vault and record-room doors, and incinerator doors are also not covered by this standard. There are special regulations for elevator and dumb-waiter doors, which are not covered in this document.
Not all areas of the world enforce National Fire Protection Association standards, but in North America it is the norm. In the United States, NFPA 80 also requires annual inspection of fire doors. Many modern adaptations to doors, with electronic components or entry systems, may compromise the fire protection unless installed by certified technicians.